This past September we travelled to the Sahtu communities of Tulita and Deline to deliver workshops on climate change and permafrost for youth in the community with support from the Sahtu Secretariat and CIRNAC. We were also able to give community presentations on our work on permafrost in the area and hear alot about concerns and community observations. It was a productive and memorable trip
We had a busy but fulfilling day in Tulita working with ~20 youth in the classroom and outside, active layer probing and drilling cores with @OnTheLandry, @WedgeIceQc and Ashley Rudy of NTGS. Ending with a community dinner and talk on our work in the Sahtu, and community mapping. pic.twitter.com/ryu3O7O0nR
The implications of the rapidly melting permafrost
Experts recently gathered in Yukon to learn about the rapidly melting permafrost. As part of The Current’s visit to Yukon, Matt Galloway goes on a field trip with Duane Froese to see the melting ice and find out the many implications of the thaw. Froese is a professor in the department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Alberta.
With my colleague, Thomas Homer-Dixon of the Cascade Institute, we wrote on Op Ed focused on the policy issues and needs for Canada to address with respect to permafrost and changing conditions in the north in the Globe and Mail.
We were recently funded to build the Permafrost Archives Science Laboratory (PACS Lab) which is an ice-core styled lab focused on Permafrost characterization and analyses of permafrost-preserved records for a variety of applications. The funding is for just over $4M and will include new clean labs for biogeochemical and genomic sampling from permafrost cores, an associated archive freezer, core cutting room, and new analytical laboratory, CT and core scanner that should allow most analyses that can be done on permafrost cores. The lab is under construction and is anticipated to be complete in the Spring of 2019. The story by Hina Alam is online here
We recently published a paper clarifying the origins of a distinctive group of Ice Age horses, the New World Stilt-legged horses. These horses have very distinctive metapodials that when you see them in the field they jump out as very thin relative to the more robust form of the common Equus lambei forms we commonly find. Pete Heintzman, who was a post-doc with Beth Shapiro’s group and working on some of our Klondike materials in the Yukon collection along with some fossils we recovered in 2010, isolated mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from these fossils and showed that the stilt-legged horses were not related to the living Asiatic asses such as the Tibetan Kulan or Persian Onager, but rather their own separate New World branch of horses. And importantly not just a new species, but actually a whole new genus that we call Haringtonhippus after UofA Alum and palaeontologist-extraordinaire C.Richard Harington from the Canadian Museum of Nature who first described the Yukon horses.
Fig. 2. Reconstructions of bison skulls based on fossils attributed to (A) a giant long-horned bison, B. latifrons; (B) a Late Pleistocene steppe bison, B. priscus; and (C) a present-day B. bison. Giant long-horned bison were significantly larger than present-day bison; adult males may have weighed in excess of 2,000 kg, which is twice as large as present-day bison, and had horns that spanned as much as 2.2 m (57, 58).
This spring we published a paper that was a little more than a decade in the making. We have recovered, over the years, bison fossils from a lot of localities in the Yukon and Alaska, but just what is the earliest bison record? Well the literature is pretty muddled on the topic and based on our work over the last 15 or so years, we were pretty convinced that they don’t go beyond MIS 6. We were able to confirm that from some excavations we did along the Old Crow River at a site called CRH12 (after C. Richard Harington, UofA alumnus and Quaternary vertebrate curator-extraordinaire (though now retired) from the Canadian Museum of Nature) that despite a very rich fauna – there were no bison. This is consistent with our work in central Yukon, interior Alaska etc. We never find bison younger than latest MIS 6 (or more commonly) in last interglacial (MIS 5) and later deposits. We joined up with my frequent collaborator Beth Shapiro at UCSC to get ancient DNA from some of these early fossils, including the earliest one that we could constrain very tightly to late MIS 6 from the Old Crow area along the Porcupine River. That fossil, not surprisingly sat basal in the tree from all other North American bison, indicating that this was indeed the earliest North American bison and sat quite close in the tree to a Bison latifrons fossil from Colorado that dated to the last interglacial.
This is where it gets interesting. B. latifrons is the giant horned bison with the 2 m+ horn span that is generally regarded as the ‘first’ bison in the continental U.S., but has never been found in Alaska or Yukon, where presumably they should since bison only arrived from Asia in the late-Middle Pleistocene (as we establish). This means that B. latifrons must have evolved from our northern steppe bison (Bison priscus) after it arrived in the south. Up until this paper was published, despite so much work that has been done on bison, B. latifrons DNA has never been sequenced. So in short, we put a very nice chronology to the arrival of North American bison, which just happens to coincide with the start of the Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age, and showed that the steppe bison that first colonized North America (B. priscus) quickly morphed into the giant horned bison, B. latifrons very quickly. Much of this was speculated on by R. Dale Guthrie more than 40 years ago, but it’s nice when the science aligns to support it. The paper was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.
I had the opportunity to introduce Alice Major’s new collection of poems entitled ‘Welcome to the Anthropocene’ at the UofA Observatory. I gave a short presentation on the science of the Anthropocene to a very a very literate crowd. It was great fun- and an excerpt from Alice’s book:
Our ancient horse genome paper published last year was named the number 8 science story of 2013- following the Mars Rover, and CO2 hitting 400 ppm…yeah top spot is pretty tough. The story by Breana Drexler is online here